Course Home Contact Prof. Finney
Syllabus Schedule Course Resources Student Projects

Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck's Value Orientations

From: Kluckhohn, F. R., & F. L. Strodtbeck, Variations in Value Orientations (New York: Row & Peterson), 1960.

This taxonomy classifies how cultures influence their members values and provide instruction for how to live their lives.

Five basic questions asked on culture influence are:
  1. What is the character of human nature?

  2. What is the relation of humankind to nature?

  3. What is the orientation toward time?

  4. What is the orientation toward activity?

  5. What is the relationship of people to each other?

According to Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, there are three possible responses for each question:

Range of Values
Response 1
Response 2
Response 3

Human nature

Basically good Mixture of good and evil Basically evil

Relationship between humans
and nature

Humans dominate Harmony between the two Nature dominates

Time orientation

Future-oriented Present-oriented Past-oriented

Activity orientation

"Doing": stress on action "Growing": stress on spiritual growth "Being": stress on who you are

Relationships between people

Individual Group-oriented Collateral

E-mail questions or comments to
DePauw University | May 23, 2006
Contact Prof. Finney
Contact Prof. B arnes Course Home Contact Prof. Finney Course Home Contact Prof. Finney